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Friction - A force that occurs when skin slides against another surface.  One example of friction is when gravity causes a patient to slip down the bed. The amount of friction depends on how easily the two surfaces can move across each other, and on how much pressure is applied  . 


Pressure - A force applied at right angles to the surface of the skin. Pressure compresses the tissue and can deform skin and soft tissues such as subcutaneous fat and muscle. Deformation is greater when pressure is applied over a bony prominence  . 


Shear - A result of friction, pressure and movement. Changes in position are likely to cause shear, such as when the head of the bed is raised or lowered. Shear forces tend to cause deeper tissue damage that may not be visible immediately  . 

Micro Climate

Microclimate - The temperature and moisture levels where skin and support surface meet. Higher skin temperatures lead to sweating. The accumulation of heat and moisture has been shown to weaken skin and increase the amount of friction and shear between the skin and support surface 

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